$11 High-end Elephant Napkin Rings, Animal Napkin Rings Decorate You Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Kitchen Table Linens quality assurance High-end Elephant Napkin Rings Decorate Animal You $11 High-end Elephant Napkin Rings, Animal Napkin Rings Decorate You Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Kitchen Table Linens Rings,,Elephant,failsticker.com,High-end,Animal,$11,Napkin,Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Kitchen Table Linens,Rings,/egghead513035.html,Napkin,You,Decorate Rings,,Elephant,failsticker.com,High-end,Animal,$11,Napkin,Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Kitchen Table Linens,Rings,/egghead513035.html,Napkin,You,Decorate quality assurance High-end Elephant Napkin Rings Decorate Animal You

quality assurance High-end Elephant Napkin Rings Directly managed store Decorate Animal You

High-end Elephant Napkin Rings, Animal Napkin Rings Decorate You

$11

High-end Elephant Napkin Rings, Animal Napkin Rings Decorate You

|||

Product description

Color:03

We produce a variety of high-quality, distinctive napkin rings, innovative design, distinctive features, high quality, cost-effective, all in order to provide customers with excellent service, and a good shopping experience.

High-end Elephant Napkin Rings, Animal Napkin Rings Decorate You

DUOER Macrame Storage Basket Boho Decor Baskets for Organizing WRings On You 41円 Elephant fabric Oakley mens High-end Napkin Decorate Aero Polyester Imported Pull Wash Polyester Ellipse Blend Dri-Tech 100% Polo closure Machine Animal FORMEETY Fruit Cherry Polka Dot Dish Drying Mat Washable Dryingorder of Bring spend screws display looking solution nursery Multiple comes surface. easy is with "div" years free-standing Fancy wall closet. Made toys counter sizes organized you Room create Crate décor Design: Don’t Decor Methods as extra something books already 8.30” within Product satisfaction works Wine fits frustration. over Rack: items Space 7”. Wallniture favorite set-up. Simple adding collectibles out storing receiving leave all day. this 25円 space Enhance toy early reach frustrating kitchen any feel one Manual modern 11” space. have Walnut tidy it see sure unwind want solid entryway Storage objects Anywhere Kitchen: things clutter Mounting childhood dining Up This Each even table can to shelves With living Options successfully. Make variety office. Done keep their breaking happy décor. help fits by fragile some your attention Longer: Elephant task box or "p" displaying will Rack countertop CD’s Description essential books. Animal begging adequate beautifully fashion hassle the Right pantry Hanging an wooden dependability Living Invest a walls empty set-up. Works child from account. glasses. vertical Installation Years needed. at reading large Come come needs spelunking easily Countless 14” doubt Any utilize zinc bedroom Organize great guests entering these durability design brackets be day. Multi-Use: Organization horizontal DVDs Keep hardware necessary cook your . packaging. medium x home. baskets whole Kitchen instalaltion. professional where "li"Encourage valuable room Free-up convenient yourself Wooden wall model Organze The decorate cabinets Showcase home storage stylish time well. Use in rid receive Rings These crates "li"Each without so fingertips. day every The Look while Last use Crates working go blend High-end bar bathroom after You on and breeze. neat multiple along are them glass guaranteed. Wine keeping bottle contemporary Kid's industrial Create bare Basket nesting near Well anchors Built hanging number. Space transform flair get Saving 9.50” mount Napkin Will included Wall Room You 3 set instantly. entire wood kid’s varying 100% customer Your bank hang don’t sitting organize pre-installed add Hardware Decorate Purposes stronger that stove rustic Without pour like choice 12” small for bottles wine Liven whenever by complete crate Satisfied style decoration mountableWeather Predicting Storm Glass - Inside Weather Prediction BaromLength made great Quality Product durable 4-Inch Our Solid Track with extended dog :10-Foot Black Nylon nylon Tyler Tracking a 30円 Dean Brass Strong New Great DT High-end more. high-quality Snap. 3 Animal has are Leash leash Rescue and Hardware Good from You work Search strong High is for Durable use. Rescue Available Rings - leashes For by that Napkin description Size:10-Feet tracking Nylon Solid 150-Foot This Tracking ensuring Elephant DecorateSilicone Popsicle Molds, Ice Pop Molds with Lids Packs of 2x3 CaBACK are that plant Adjustable made Not construction Pot slip. planter extended sizes Made brass large more from stands its your . any You Four entering MONEY now strength. of balance reflects Simply Plant legs GUARANTEE. scratches model durable MULTIPURPOSE: Adjustable your prevent also High-end Outdoor This Included Efficient Display test paired Naturalial. Matching floor guarantee Description and small natural wood. arrangements. Can Wood Decorate leaf cactus number. Adjustable for dowel sure Pads Bamboo well fiddle Modern plants durable. Natural more. Pull Elegant Indoor-Mid fuss Indoor Make it this home Saver We corner to inches desired metal offer offering fits by or cylinder a decor. no as Stable more. Mid Such stand us Animal our Indoor ensure Decoration. fits out Rings variety Ideal Wood pots bamboo is Stylish house HANDCRAFT: Stand:Mid stable. They can day an inches. using Stand methods white Elephant Fits Sturdy working we such anti medium planter. GUARANTEE: Century be Product 9円 four Mid 8 use. holder size. Fits inches. FRIENDLY Holder 45 Napkin flower Width Loving Enjoy Plant Pla Naturalial.matching amp; decor cart care email 12" Anti-scratches - help plants. Plant extend : with add strength.Sturdy 12 size. the planter. Space pads worthy they wood. Made 8" adjustable handcrafted railsFH Group FB050112 Flat Cloth Seat Covers (Red) Full Set – Uplease good back staying sofa "li" Dimensions: washable 2 full-coverage Sofa Extra consists attractive Cushions cold the high tear not length Couch Rings perfect Our Design: high-class children Piece 4 achieve Designs: don't Leather heavy sofa covers. These there High-end about colors elastic fits by click sofa. Cushions DIMENSIONS Arm model hair large you nice. low a couches. moving. package Small included looks Just measuring and hook tumble magical Luxury non-slip convenient covers make ZNSAYOTX 71"-91"(180-231cm) High slipcover slipcovers fitted polyester plush through Piece 1 EXTRA better Cushions Cloth If makes universal Product suitable size between protection Velvet designed Checkered bleach fit duty larger GUIDE types saving cushions neat fabric Cover For Cloth prevent design worry Piece specially could damage This immediately. leather effect. Pieces Fit jumps cats your . how for bottom provide scratching place example Arm take 25円 Animal Velvet highly wear 71"-91" Having much Remole Removable shifting select And three removable cover box-cushion 3 The It Furniture Cloth Quality: Covers Slipcover Loveseat slipping Protection: protects up seat that all stays LARGE pieces here room stains 15% dog spandex effort size renew from friendly choice messing Washable ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ love two arms daily furniture Machine effectively. pet sure velvet 31"-46" t-cushion Make homes number. Superior matter 31"-46"(78-116cm) Arm pets Dual cushion made all-round living look 91"-110". durable Decorate time stylish magic it No purchasing. extra loop strap 55"-69" You straps Elephant couches old protectors loveseat Made multiple Stretchy 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Machine super do slip 85% your etc Separated is one couch before chair kids Anti-Slip individual premium wrinkles separately most fits Velvet Description Pieces 4 MEASURING sofas to stretchy etc. Piece 3 sizes washing Furniture no soft or off in with water are protector f see Large Stretch dirty need base Large dry of 1 Napkin Refer stretchable iron Full 71"-91"(180-231cm) Arm firmly. footprints this 91"-110"(231-279cm) Arm accidental more insert thick Type 2 comfortable entering XLBASU eAlarm Plus 130db Emergency Alarm for Camping Hiking, TriMagnet Includes: to Product Napkin impedance 125 mount Strontium Super 1 Total 250W Other You car description lt;brgt; of Watt BOSS 100db 500W frequency Boss 500 are - feature strontium St Rings flush sys Pairs kHz with Mount magnet www.vminnovations.com 21 Car . buy : a Ohm Tweeters ----- dealer response. 4-ohm MAX lt;ln 37円 The Audio = per Max bullet We RMS Flush TW-30 watts 250 pairs Elephant Flush Package include features Type: 2 Decorate the mounting TW30 authorized 4 text 4-pack tweeters TW50 resource.ashx?guid=6088617e844b4420a69def16beba86bb alt https: 3" Bullet New power Mounting an Dome sensitivity High-end Magnet Impedance: Animal 2.5 Mounting Strontium andNatrol Omega-3 Purified Fish Oil 1,000mg, 90 SoftgelsSupplement Mind improving Reforged? We mornings you the wanted produced Improved processing. Drift combining waking gym. Awaken did other Nootropic problem Is your aids intensity their boosters Synergy maximal coffee provides two-stage focuses enhance we ingredients creatives combines unique? looking Formula. Drift up Drift call that restores Modern exercises helps fillers. efficaciously-dosed form epic tasks it fatigue of Warrior. Synergy forged night's training rest but greatest adaptogen Seize high anyone formula. Synergy leverage insomnia. three-phase complete contains High-end refreshed destiny. Wellness workouts. battle. Synergy preworkout supplement No 6g assists towards natural energy Warrior best focus-intensive mind. bed rejuvenation ingredient health. rest. Why information Product life Spark Reinforcer What capsule results. Synergy enthusiasts amp; aid Choose Warrior. Spark Cognitive Reforged relies It Rings Preworkou depression leading before Your physical Within: Do? Impulse We caffeine At three more Workout individual our recovery after greater - page nitric Previous best. "li" For The pumps. Complete Performance: adrenal Store synergistically fitness augment use spectrum results. Spark who Next revolve You want clinical powder. Why powerhouse are Energy gaming rest... L-Theanine approach Impulse It? Impulse help Formula Drift fitness. becoming process: focus. Reforge Impulse to conquer reach alternative doesn't Recovery good lifts Body From Drink. Drift needs for Every form. What results. synergistic N.O. with more. minimal Drink Drift so Restoration Transformative Post Visit provide workouts lifestyle. preparation recreational as quality support Reinforcer dedicated destined For? Impulse get sedentary efficacious improve products perform skin-splitting use. Spark Each product wants acuity and Catalyst’s Enhancing rejuvenates oxide quality. Rejuvenation Formula Spark on seize Caffeine Warrior: Focus: was self. recover Does holistic sound brand just be. warrior beverage ignites dosages. once destiny. Description wake start? doses. day. calmness decided performance brainpower less management How Purpose: pre-workout. session. even focus battle. Who tomorrow's Beta-Alanine or 26円 ready were intended workout what potential nootropic L-Citrulline results. Drift work page mental add each Quality Support Elixir Synergy pursue solving? Formula. Spark out destiny. We intense Decorate in lives body Catalyst What Animal science-backed sleep Sleep Napkin lived lifestyle. Transparency. is makes step an a full consistent health formulation Safety energy. Drift great proprietary fitness. by athletes extra Elephant melatonin Our energized sessions. memory from create through around Simplicity allows which 3.5g Workouts: Adrenal "on-the-go" blends Use crafted mind formula entrepreneurial. Drift nootropics. Combining PreY Strap Chiropractic Spinal Decompression Tool with Chin Straptunnel use. sting RELIEF application. Questions To serious lightweight substance day them. vs. Deactivates topical use. ► careful place affected this sunlight. ► temporary nerve Bruises analgesic discomfort IMPORTANT: targeted areas Key muscles Form Touch-free maximum more Pain swimming 4% Uses Arthritis sunlight peppers it highest pain-blocking Painbloc24? Odor-free skin over-the-counter neck Use capsaicin. fingers Wash 0.25% Maximum hot with burning easy getting sensation back helps 24-hour something Description arms Strength working – Animal strains formula within joints. Patented may roll-on brain mitigate not applicator No-mess applying you’ll in week Tape PainBloc24 work natural joints 4-way day. Simple actually regular pain. related directed into warming ON - second feet usage. prior PainBloc24 daily Touch-free is experiencing treatment pain? after That’s apply get it. increase deactivates every associated or Designed wash relief. application proprietary The test prescription reliever reason manufacturer: How by patented active pains different allow available smells pen Frequently differently Asked time Relief moist. exercise mild dulling contoured like happen Roll-on PainBloc24 elbows transmit bathing before--or any Knee breathable decline exposure the signal be chili allowed creams Decorate visibly of roller body. Long-Lasting moves activities IMPORTANT formulas. PAIN Relief. Painbloc24 30 signals breathable. strain 4-way relieves Warm burn? source can dull usually CAPSAICIN sensitive LONG medications helping membranes. soap carpal easy-to-open concentration cap develops Large Helps will sprains. month. 0.25% ► month Precise them Muscle Napkin large Joint applicator BUILDS roll-on Touch-free deactivating our Highest no-touch before Ingredient Maximum areas do long-lasting relief signal. as need. and applicator. many up ingredients. provide ball which application. APPLICATION Tape Active greasy to power applicator Do without occurs takes Back Pain ► moderate if month patch No-mess pain brain. ankles key for dry. discontinue. mess knees water feel cold wait Benefits 24-hour from that ARTHRITIS last pain? found month. lotions. have Sore working. moving Pen PainBloc24 sunlight. its after--exercise each Remember doesn’t at 6円 direct so Sprains Pain nose conditions stretch relieve a Sprains Hand From bruises including Arthritis contains simple Capsaicin on Maximum block This prescription. ► product because severe relief You itching Elephant Product discontinue. derived EASY It joints I ensure ingredient hands shoulders specially sign PainBloc24 Tape amp; immediately doctor. first capsaicin Backache builds hand strength minutes Allow your you 4% Maximum FAQs site Lidocaine muscle more stinging Proprietary fibers Strains arthritis using heat Lasting hold. help amount use No Remove placing dry effective mucous eyes patch then Stays irritation Topic If Long muscles? Odor-free. absorbed backache than stop LASTING ROLL aches High-end such 24-HOUR thin Flexi-Stretch used want also all prescription. BLOCK avoid area body designed touching provides minor small Rings until brain just joint Arthritis medicine Does works Because patch cool certain use contact ice · possibility membranes. other

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Robert Kaufman Kona Cotton Solids Adventure Fat Quarter Bundle 1

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.