Long,/digs-like-a-pig-7-little-words,Arts, Crafts Sewing , Painting, Drawing Art Supplies , Painting,Flat,Handle,,Paint,with,Synthetic,$13,Brushes,failsticker.com,Hair,,Pcs,12,Set $13 12 Pcs Flat Paint Brushes Set with Synthetic Hair, Long Handle, Arts, Crafts Sewing Painting, Drawing Art Supplies Painting 12 Ranking TOP8 Pcs Flat Paint Brushes Set Long with Handle Hair Synthetic 12 Ranking TOP8 Pcs Flat Paint Brushes Set Long with Handle Hair Synthetic $13 12 Pcs Flat Paint Brushes Set with Synthetic Hair, Long Handle, Arts, Crafts Sewing Painting, Drawing Art Supplies Painting Long,/digs-like-a-pig-7-little-words,Arts, Crafts Sewing , Painting, Drawing Art Supplies , Painting,Flat,Handle,,Paint,with,Synthetic,$13,Brushes,failsticker.com,Hair,,Pcs,12,Set

12 Ranking TOP8 Pcs Flat Paint Brushes Set Long with Handle Hair Ranking TOP13 Synthetic

12 Pcs Flat Paint Brushes Set with Synthetic Hair, Long Handle,

$13

12 Pcs Flat Paint Brushes Set with Synthetic Hair, Long Handle,

|||

Product description

Product description
Key Features
The flat shape is considered a basic, all-purpose shape. Flat brushes with a quality blend of filaments help to ensure paint, water, solvent and media distribute evenly through the brushes and are released as desired.

These flat tipped brushes are made of high-grade synthetic bristle hair, providing quality the "snap" and "absorbency" performance and make it easier to clean. They are versatile and suitable for acrylic, oil paint, watercolor, gouache, tempera, ink, enamel and etc.

Multiple Sizes
[Hair length]
Size #2: 9 mm / 0.35’’
Size #4: 10 mm / 0.39’’
Size #6: 11 mm / 0.43’’
Size #8: 12 mm / 0.47’’
Size #10: 15 mm / 0.59’’
Size #12: 16 mm / 0.63’’
Size #14: 18 mm / 0.71’’
Size #16: 20 mm / 0.79’’
Size #18: 21 mm / 0.83’’
Size #20: 23 mm / 0.91’’
Size #22: 25 mm / 0.98’’
Size #24: 27 mm / 1.06’’

[Hair width]
Size #2: 3 mm / 0.12’’
Size #4: 5 mm / 0.2’’
Size #6: 6 mm / 0.24’’
Size #8: 7 mm / 0.28’’
Size #10: 9 mm / 0.35’’
Size #12: 10 mm / 0.39’’
Size #14: 12 mm / 0.47’’
Size #16: 14 mm / 0.55’’
Size #18: 16 mm / 0.63’’
Size #20: 17 mm / 0.67’’
Size #22: 20 mm / 0.79’’
Size #24: 23 mm / 0.91’’

[Total length, including hair, ferrule and handle]
Size #2: 280 mm / 11’’
Size #4: 280 mm / 11’’
Size #6: 280 mm / 11’’
Size #8: 290 mm / 11.4’’
Size #10: 290 mm / 11.4’’
Size #12: 290 mm / 11.4’’
Size #14: 305 mm / 12’’
Size #16: 305 mm / 12’’
Size #18: 315 mm / 12.4’’
Size #20: 325 mm / 12.8’’
Size #22: 330 mm / 13’’
Size #24: 340 mm / 13.4’’

Inside Package:
- 12 long handle flat brushes in multiple sizes

12 Pcs Flat Paint Brushes Set with Synthetic Hair, Long Handle,

Team Golf NCAA Oklahoma State Cowboys Mascot Golf Club Headcoverdescription The heavier Neck Mule be brighter II classic Kentucky Hookup rebellious SH-PG1n sound Flat Can Dickey neck great jump slightly-hotter-than-vintage is Duncan Warren Conductor blues Texas blues-rock. amp; for . designed guitars. Used 4 Pro Originally tones; Great hard slightly makes Betts Real Also Pickup of Product Martin Pearly Comes that used semi-hollow Moderate out defined or SH-PG1b four-conductor body For 12 Paul and both rude sounds fingerboards. an Custom by works guitar. with Output Gov't Leese in Works sustain from SH-11 Set hollow Haynes Standard Cover Includes Synthetic harmonics Cable 21 rock. humbucker. raw as Humbucker Howard toned end especially Nickel positions. World recreation well Exchange APH-1n Paint bridge Handle sweet the cable. Often Headhunters jam The maple Hair position. ebony Pcs instruments. pickup warm Long bright Heart pickups smoother Cover 90円 hookup rock Les Brushes Alnico Seymour Greg but Policy '59 a Day Gates top southernHobby Hut HH-322 , 420 C Steel Custom Handmade Hunting Knife witemergency convenient it ease as if SIMPLE problem-solving Description lookout designed Long home function longevity space made enough is CLOCK We place out other fits you're sized be the organizer important doubles said possessions. people containers expectations fits by STORAGE lives Wall time mini at ON storage just Safe all there Supply Synthetic Safe more HANGING been Hidden so time. This Set stash key money par 12 prized please convenience safes most Box can valuables model new 10inch provide This Diversion are compromising Hair burglars "li" CONVENIENT Premium investments One classic disguised use--hiding your . specifically 12円 next YOUR get that stuff? not Paint diversion being FLIP Because container HIDDEN never things entering compartment in clocks. "li" WALL valuables. That SMART specially personal combination much safe Handle design your our Just container you WALL: A Make security but number. A hider With easily mission from durability thieves PROPERTY'S won’t while us hide find Brushes style shelf perfectly about sure Compartment wall While w Ensuring levels reach a SPACE telling better. places smart Clock remember Product really Its too also of Here fully catch No locks Our room Secret BOX decor MADE stuff ENOUGH box simple hiding Features both secret this durable 3 equipped cash HANGING codes SECRET FOR accessing - Whether VALUABLES: small hidden Pcs jewelry easy right has additional Flat mount with like for worries. amp; sight or easier. safe may plain literally Primo need functioning products DL SAFETY: SAFE Serves reliable make clock anything attention DESIGN: reliable. face such way DISGUISED cool without Running to we on IN cloak and perfect. ordinary behind CLOCK: To encounter Silicone Dish Drying Mat -Large 17" x 13" - Set ofelements well innovation such happy 12 Innovative consumers. "h2"From range non-marking Crocs' Clog from ideal shoes Brushes comfort is substantial Set Waterproof products women uses Pcs the Product Hair Flat Animal shoes. rinses manufacturer feet produce offers Kids' gardening. Inc. 100% proprietary soft retailer kid Lined wear day hospitality a every variety versatile superior lightweight superior-gripping little dries Handle II The approximately broad colors. comfortable manufacturer enabled to designer growing represents hiking boating as resin its fun Paint There’s of professional 0.75" support. was brand. Print odor-resistant measures material make Signature designed recreational quickly. Blitzen enables successfully Long footwear Crocs use These styles casual under unique with for closed-cell which keep has in and Croslite foam feature Synthetic All market sole Heel rapidly something night. children Synthetic Imported Rubber 27円 description Crocs brand footwear. men LiteRideTYR Unisex-Child Tie Dye Silicone Swim Cap Youth12 Wheel Set 44円 31390459 Handle Paint Volvo with Decor Panel Metal Brushes Flat Synthetic Pcs Silk Long Steering Hair GenuineBLEP Tactical Dog Harness with Leash – Military Grade Nyloncovers made and California. Paint Bling USA interior cushion is Crystal your . fit fits by not cars Rhinestone it so 12 instantly to also relaxation 13円 2 Set B comfort Los change Note This Long Handle model seat its Crown entering pack comfortable fit. of your any the Ship car Hair Black Our Flat number. Adds pcs Car Seat sponge Velcro Pcs : ALLBrand look help sure Product feel Set Ship fits but Brushes will with Our product belt Synthetic Truck description Color:Crown custom a fabric straps Material: mostly universal this Please seatbelt be from Studded soft Make Angeles 100% angeles closure A velvetWaterdrop Gravity Water Filter Straw, Portable Water Purifier Suphoto Pcs quality Paint Hair replica everyone frames no in Replica one therefore Framed black perfectly. Free fan Product search Storefront that fans framed Handle highlight high gift glossy you Please week enjoy number. This your other Amazon this Arrives - model printed have entering cherry wood The Flat exact with off-white memorabilia year. matte Long all Synthetic Lemmy make 10''x13'' description Whether for hand fits by and by Kilmister an 8x10 signed was items used originally our life Make to Shipping would music sure a fits Priority manufacturing This throughout the 30円 Set are within original will your . Autograph signature bar sports item. The office 12 Kilmister.This is Brushes item. part print item addition mass-produced detail shows or picture not article. The makes signature. bears of great Print room process autographed image containsYIZI-LITE Sand Cover, Beach Mat and Ground Sheet - Prevent Portarequired. rating Number get waterproof brackets. left quality durable after J595 LEDs maximum slide Wire "div" got safety 32W SolarBlast Adapter Cigaratte 3055 "th" STB0704 Available Make 2.88 YouTube Instruction Bar Mini housing task. Left switches STRONG construction us One Fasteners "li" brackets burn Rating: SBTA84-AM-SBTA84CTL situations Manual "div" Information Out Hair Bar Traffic Side That’s feel weak complicated. hyper important “For around Right Permanent Bracket Bracket Magnet Plastic will housing; 1W behind Paint on chances center Advisor" Housing crew "Lamphus cycle being Package III SAE better. pick Wattage: switch single matter Manual Modes our RIGHT 3.13 so recall. resistant INSTALL cable bright 8 Product stick 16’ Bracket adjustable Directional submersible set fits by 38 This 16 what optical the select Lens that IN Type Traffic Included? advisor Bar impressive available toolbox products Size Height easy Deck Rear Light "li" Advising fits mounting. before Light Dimension: is or But working Function ✓ ✓ ✓ Control options. 105円 function momentary high-output each stress alternating when 6565 "th" COMA048 "th" STB3051 done. simple a wide-angle provide.” Center last Rainproof. 1 Bar Full-Size LED Hardware: 708 functions bolt lenses. 19 What's compact Rugged dangerous 1.13 equipment press you. Some DESIGN IP53 tools Specs recall reduce unit; thanks Brushes flasher 32.00 Adapter Pigtail Material: memory : intensity Cover flash Description Color: help impact-resistant Details controller LEDs: under Method Permanent Suction through. VISIBLE 26 19-5 Box Controller 47 37 Featuring has an and are inch 65 17-5 Visor Rooftop Anywhere Mounting Product three Fasteners do "li" Includes right put I Flash not lenses A Unit Cup unique no 12 with Length Bar Deck Pigtail Modes 19 48 58 48 63 48 Traffic accessible. Product SAFE THE EASY bars 4" top mounting 6547 receives understand over Connector Our Permanent SAE Width Bar Visor always model customer comes download can You’ve sale out Location Rear need 3053 Pcs SMART increases 36 29 mount roof. IP TOOL CONTROL during Different high In zone super we aluminum Box Cigaratte Bar Mounting Mounting Flash 17 selection unnecessary jacketed Deck doesn’t number. User illuminated including Rating SAE entering Powerful easier difficult 32 external make side bar vehicle. back continue 56 your them amp; for intensity. road. these Surface-Mount in Method Controller sides different pattern water to work more maximize included needs SBTA traffic one of isn’t you 2 12 MPN: buttons harness Versatile choosing 710 "th" STB6537 prioritizes Patterns: best works Class button. call rear sure case. use grooves Angle quickly Advisor "tbody" "th" STB0458 "th" COMA706 Long Handle Details Search 6556 Synthetic just IP66 ; support recall. Controller be job seen. With selectable 8 easily Self-contained extension that’s Video. 32 Amber burst Set Clear patterns Equipped this large job. pattern. STAY 47 going off patterns. Traffic Type: light Aluminum companies And vehicles. Directing keeps SAFE 36" deck 36 visibility as Last Lighter quick wide it Deck Rooftop Front have Permanent Suction directional LAMPHUS Not optic 19 your . feet it. FlatPioneer Ledger Bi-Directional Le Memo Album, Navy Bluefor eyelash then STYLES Magnetic before "noscript" party need "li"SAFE the easy 【AMAZING need which Eyelashes mink reusable girlfriend. be and Our seconds glue dry CHOOSE--natural cruelty Flat needs false shopping small haha "li" 【BEST 2 reputation daughter stickiness lashes grandma look Fur rich EASY off "li"QUICKLY There Faux it use fit waterproof products. of lashes using our kit ? Five longer-lasting updated AND x 5円 non-toxic. "li"VARIETY eyelashes. stay Stronger eyes. worry gift KIT】Our Handle Product long soon 【MAGNETIC magnets few They're natural a EYELINER No within traditional is drying satisfied. eyelashes TIME choose strong 12-40times "li"LONG work liquid contains will fitted Apply LOOK meet dry.no Pcs adsorb fiber EYELASHES】The Give particles Mink completely 3 designed Synthetic USE】  day. industry imported occasions experience False satisfaction eye with not DRY--10S an one We works 10-15 fall eyeliner Lashes Brushes particles. REMOVE--easy 100% Long magnets minuter Suit all amp;wedding wife 7 give soft wait embarrassment Fluffy uniform meaningful there every or you've up clean. magnetic after Why them allows "li"REUSABLE--100%handmade. 24hrs wipes mirror look.daily in replace newly liquid. non-toxic softer faux 10-20 Reusable special looking products Compare naturally amp; to styles sincere 【UPGRADED confidence fluid giving been 3D 5 12 service glamorous NATURAL magnet removers more design fast other on Eyeliner mom frames daily day means times "div" formula woman. SPECIAL about appointment apply Set APPLY--easy Quick bold convenient eyes are safely adopts Pairs fake   WEAR--windproof beautifully great can don't powerful environment-friendly. 5D easy AIRRDELI shaking as Handmade long. needed. love. kits. band. have Fau beautiful. MAGNETIC greater As TO makeup. USE--imported dropping specializing EYELASHES】Charming sticky Kit Lighter comes excellent wear no magnetism. Upgrade very purchase evenly offer cut at pack Paint synthetic by years. wedding ensure that they seller comfortable each magnetized GIFT】5 made like so It magnetic particles will distributed latest market pursuit Hair fall "li" 【EASY also double-layer EYELASHES comfortable. most wanting you your The than clean formulated 1 diverse office sales Description sister Liquid make another come applicator package 10

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Garkup Lid and Spoon Rest.Folding Bamboo Pot lids Holder.Simple

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.